Crypto Legislation 2020: Analysis Of 21 Cryptocurrency And ...

More Governments Will Use Blockchain Technology If It Adapts To Their Needs

Link to original article: https://www.wales247.co.uk/more-governments-will-use-blockchain-technology-if-it-adapts-to-their-needs/
Blockchain technology is one of the greatest innovations of the 21st century, yet so little of the world actually benefits from it right now.
One of the reasons for this is the lack of government adoption, with only a handful of forward thinking nations adopting it in production so far. I believe that, were more governments to adopt this powerful technology, the mass adoption by large swathes of the global population would follow.
However, for this to happen, blockchain technology needs to change. At present, the decentralised networks that are most established simply aren’t designed for governments. They advocate anonymity and a lack of centralised control above all else. The reality of the world we live in though is that people recognise the role of a centralised government as their elected representatives.
For blockchain technology to really benefit the average citizen, it needs to adapt to the societal structures we recognise today. To do this, it needs to understand the needs of the governments we elect to represent us and adapt to the requirements of these increasingly important users.

Existing blockchain isn’t designed for government

The history of blockchain technology is mostly one that focuses on the rejection of control by the state. Bitcoin was developed as a peer-to-peer electronic cash system over a decade ago precisely because the group of cypher punks at the heart of its early development wanted to build a value exchange mechanism outside of government control.
The system they build has grown into one that sections of traditional finance have gradually increased their exposure to but the regulatory status of Bitcoin is still fluid rather than set in stone. Of course, blockchain technology now exists outside Bitcoin in various different guises. Also, there are governments that have chosen to embrace the underlying technology in order to improve their services for citizens.
Estonia, the small Baltic state, is probably the best example of this. The country embarked on its drive to digitise its government at roughly the same time that blockchain emerged, in response to a series of cyber attacks that crippled the state. As part of the 99% of government services that are now available as e-services, Estonia has blockchain-based government registries for courts, property and healthcare.
It is not alone either. Sweden and Georgia are other examples of states that have deployed blockchain in production to power government services. However, for all of these encouraging examples, the reality is that most governments – and the most powerful ones in particular – have not embraced blockchain in the way some early advocates of the technology had predicted.
Furthermore, even where governments have embraced the technology, they have mostly chosen permissioned, private blockchain in favour of the well-established public blockchain that many technology enthusiasts prefer. That’s because public blockchain isn’t designed for governments to use. It usually embraces anonymity and rejects the idea of a controlling authority, even if that is an elected representative government.

Central Bank Digital Currencies are coming

The thing that could totally change this dynamic though is Central Bank Digital Currencies or CBDC. Almost every leading nation is now weighing up the possibility of issuing a CBDC and using blockchain technology to do so.
This trend has come about for a few reasons. Firstly, there is the fact that citizens are gradually but increasingly choosing to make digital payments over cash payments. This is good for governments because digital payments are more efficient and easier to deal with than cash, particularly in terms of taxation and compliance.
Then there is the fact that the move towards CBDCs is undoubtedly a response to the rise of other digital assets. Firstly, there was Bitcoin, which governments generally don’t agree with but can at least see the benefits of, especially as a transparent and auditable record of transactions and quick, efficient value transfers. Then, came ‘private money’ in the form of initiatives like Facebook’s Libra, which could potentially remove a large chunk of the control governments have over the monetary system.
Therefore CBDCs just make sense to governments from both a benefits and a risks perspective. This is why we’re seeing so many nations and central banks getting involved. We know that the People’s Bank of China is well on the way to developing its own blockchain-based CBDC, even though the details are unclear. We also know that major leading central banks such as the US Federal Reserve, European Central Bank, Bank of France and Bank of Japan are weighing up how to issue a CBDC.
Earlier this year, the Bank of England issued a discussion paper called ‘Central Bank Digital Currency: opportunities, challenges and design’, which my company L3COS responded to. We know that existing blockchain technology will not meet the needs of CBDC initiatives. What is needed is a totally different type of regulated, permissioned and decentralised blockchain.

How blockchain must adapt for governments

To fully understand what governments need from blockchain technology, we need to first understand what they want to achieve. CBDCs are very important right now but the reason they are exploring these initiatives is so they can use them to underpin regulated digital economies.
The great benefit of blockchain technology is that it allows individuals to interact in a decentralised and peer-to-peer manner. They can interact in a totally automated way that utilises smart contract technology to exchange value quickly and easily. Governments want to embrace this type of efficient market innovation but they want it to occur in a digital economy where compliant activity is enabled and criminal activity is eliminated.
To do this, they need to regulate blockchain and this is why I have designed L3COS as the world’s first regulated, blockchain-based operating system. It operates a triple layer consensus mechanism that allows governments to regulate digital economies in which businesses and individuals can operate in a totally decentralised way.
Governments sit in the top layer, controlling super nodes that communicate with one another via a unique Proof of Government protocol and managing onboarding of other entities into the system. Businesses operate in the second layer and individuals the third, although all layers can interact with each other via smart contract-based decentralised applications, which power government and commercial services.
Such a system not only reflects the societal structures we all recognise but also enables representative governments to embrace blockchain technology for their needs. As more governments embrace the technology, so will more of their citizens and then we will see the true power of blockchain to transform society for the better.
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How Data Centralization Ends by 2030

Link to Coindesk: https://www.coindesk.com/data-centralization-2030
The next 10 years will witness the systematic manipulation of human life at a scale unrivaled in history. For all the recent controversies over privacy and surveillance, the real threat is ahead of us.
Unless new approaches to online identity and data management take hold, both governments and private actors will move inexorably from knowing you to shaping you. Blockchain-enabled decentralization will develop as the only viable response to the iron logic of data centralization.
Blockchain believers often talk as though today’s early-adopter use cases, such as cryptocurrency trading and decentralized finance, will lead straight to mass market adoption. As the inevitable ‘killer apps’ appear, so the story goes, blockchain-based systems will conquer the mainstream. One might imagine that we’ll all soon be trading digital collectibles and relying on token-curated registries for accurate information. Governments will lose control over money, and blockchain-based smart contracts will replace court-enforced legal agreements. Uber, Facebook and the banks will wither away in the face of tokenized alternatives.
This narrative is wishful thinking. In most markets, intermediaries will endure for the same reasons they always have: they provide value. The Ubers and Facebooks – and yes, even the banks – tame complexity and produce coherent, convenient, de-risked experiences that no decentralized community can ever match. Early adopters use blockchain-based systems for ideological reasons or to get rich on cryptocurrency speculation. The billions behind them in the mainstream will not. The lock-in power of network effects creates high barriers for alternative economic systems. And the need for trust disqualifies decentralized solutions that are havens for criminals, incapable of effective compliance or vulnerable to catastrophic attacks – which, regrettably, means virtually all of them today.
Truly decentralized blockchain systems will reach critical mass not out of hope but out of necessity. Powerful actors and mainstream users will adopt blockchain as a counterbalance to digital behavior-shaping by governments and private platforms. Dramatic innovations such as decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs), which manage activity automatically through smart contracts, will become significant at the end point of this process, once the foundations are in place.
Big data and artificial intelligence, pitched as freeing us from human frailties, are becoming powerful tools for social control. This is occurring along two parallel tracks: surveillance authoritarianism and surveillance capitalism. Through massive data collection and aggregation, China’s social credit system envisions an airtight regime of perfect compliance with legal and social obligations. Many other governments, including liberal democracies, are adopting similar techniques. The potential for catching terrorists, child predators and tax evaders is simply too appealing – whether it’s the real objective or a cover story.
"WHAT WE NEED IS A TECHNOLOGY THAT ALLOWS FOR SHARING WITHOUT GIVING UP CONTROL. FORTUNATELY, IT EXISTS."
Meanwhile, private digital platforms are using troves of data to shape online experiences consistent with their business models. What you see online is, increasingly, what maximizes their profits. Companies such as Google, Amazon, Tencent and Alibaba can build the best algorithms because they have the most data. And they aren’t interested in sharing.
Regulatory interventions will fail to derail the self-reinforcing momentum for ever more centralized data repositories. They may even accelerate it by creating layers of compliance obligations that only the largest firms can meet. Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) actually increased the market share of Google and Facebook in online advertising, and so it is not surprising to see such incumbents actively welcoming the prospect of more regulation.
The only lasting solution is to change the economics of data, not to impose private property rights; that would accelerate the market forces promoting data centralization. Giving you “ownership” over your data means giving you legal cover to sell it, by clicking “OK” to a one-sided contract you’ll never read. The problem is not ownership, but control. In today’s algorithm-driven world, sharing and aggregating data increases its value, producing better models and better predictions. The trouble is that once we share, we lose control to centralized data hogs.
What we need is a technology that allows for sharing without giving up control. Fortunately, it exists. It is called blockchain. Blockchain technology is, fundamentally, a revolution in trust. In the past, trust required ceding control to counter parties, government authorities or intermediaries who occupied the essential validating roles in transaction networks. Blockchain allows participants to trust the results they see without necessarily trusting any actor to verify them. That’s why major global firms in health care, finance, transportation, international trade and other fields are actively developing cross-organizational platforms based on blockchain and related technologies. No database can provide a trusted view of information across an entire transactional network without empowering a central intermediary. Blockchain can.
Adopting any new platform at scale, along with the necessary software integration and process changes, takes time – especially when the technology is so immature. But today’s incremental deployments will serve as proofs-of-concept for the more radical innovations to come. Chinese blockchain networks are already managing tens of billions of dollars of trade finance transactions. Pharmaceutical companies are tracking drugs from manufacturing to pharmacies using the MediLedger platform. Boeing is selling a billion dollars of airline parts on Honeywell’s blockchain-based marketplace. Car insurance companies are processing accident claims in a unified environment for the first time. These and other enterprise consortia are doing the essential technical and operational groundwork to handle valuable transactions at scale.
The need for transformative approaches to data will become acute in the next five years. Every week, it seems, another outrage comes to light. For instance, users who posted photos under Creative Commons licenses or default-public settings were shocked they were sucked into databases used to train facial-recognition systems. Some were even used in China’s horrific campaign against Uighur Muslims. Clearview AI, an unknown startup, scraped three billion social media images for a face identification tool it provided, with no oversight, to law enforcement, corporations and wealthy individuals. The examples will only get worse as firms and nations learn new ways to exploit data. The core problem is there is no way to share information while retaining control over how it gets used.
Blockchain offers a solution. It will be widely adopted because, behind the scenes, the current data economy is reaching its breaking point. Outrage over abuses is building throughout the world. The immensely valuable online advertising economy attracts so much fraud that the accuracy of its numbers is coming into question. Communities are looking for new ways to collaborate. Governments are realizing the current system is an impediment to effective service delivery.
The technologist Bill Joy famously stated that no matter how many geniuses a company employs, most smart people work somewhere else. The same is true of data. Even giants such as Google, Facebook and Chinese government agencies need to obtain information from elsewhere in their quest for perfect real-time models of every individual. These arrangements work mostly through contracts and interfaces that ease the flow of data between organisations. As Facebook discovered when Cambridge Analytica extracted massive quantities of user data for voter targeting, these connection points are also vulnerabilities. As tighter limits are placed on data-sharing, even the big players will look for ways to rebuild trust.
The blockchain alternative will begin innocuously. Government authorities at the subnational level are deploying self-sovereign identity to pull together information securely across disparate data stores. This technology allows anyone to share private information in a fine-grained way while still retaining control. You shouldn’t have to reveal your address to confirm your age, or your full tax return to verify your stated income. The necessary cryptography doesn’t require a blockchain, but the desired trust relationships do.
Once people have identities that belong to them, not to banks or social media services, they will use them as the basis for other interactions. Imagine a world where you never need to give a third-party unnecessary data to log into a website, apply for a job, refinance a mortgage or link your bank account to a mobile payment app. Where you can keep your personal and professional profiles completely separate if you choose. Where you can be confident in the reputation of a car mechanic or an Airbnb or a product made in China without intermediaries warping ratings for their own gain. The convenience of user experiences we enjoy within the walled gardens of digital platforms will become the norm across the vastness of independent services.
We will gradually come to view access to our personal information as an episodic, focused interaction, rather than fatalistically accepting an open season based on preliminary formal consent. Major hardware companies such as Apple, which don’t depend on targeted advertising, will build decentralized identity capabilities into their devices. They will add cryptocurrency wallets linked behind the scenes to existing payment and messaging applications. Stablecoins – cryptocurrencies pegged to the dollar, pound or other assets – will help tame volatility and facilitate movement between tokens and traditional currencies. Privately created stablecoins will coexist with central bank digital currencies, which are under development in most major countries throughout the world.
Once this baseline infrastructure is widely available, the real changes will start to occur. DAOs will begin to attract assets as efficient ways for communities to achieve their goals. These entities won’t replace state-backed legal systems; they will operate within them. As numerous controversies, crashes and hacks have already demonstrated, software code is too rigid for the range of situations in the real world, absent backstops for human dispute resolution. Fortunately, there are solutions under development to connect legal and digital entities, such as OpenLaw’s Limited Liability Autonomous Organisations and Mattereum’s Asset Passports.
Today, the legal machinery of contracts strengthens the power of centralized platforms. User agreements and privacy policies enforce their control over data and limit individuals’ power to challenge it. Blockchain-based systems will flip that relationship, with the legal system deployed to protect technology-backed user empowerment. Large aggregations of information will be structured formally as “data trusts” that exercise independent stewardship over assets. They will operate as DAOs, with smart contracts defining the terms of data usage. Users will benefit from sharing while retaining the ability to opt out.
"DATA WILL BE TREATED NOT AS PROPERTY BUT AS A RENEWABLE RESOURCE, WITH THE COMPETITION FOR ECONOMIC VALUE IN THE APPLICATIONS BUILT ON TOP OF IT."
Many significant applications require aggregation of data to drive algorithms, including traffic monitoring (and eventually autonomous vehicles); insurance and lending products serving previously excluded or overcharged customer groups; diagnosis and drug dosing in health care; and demand forecasting for economic modeling. Collective action problems can prevent constructive developments even when rights in data are well defined. DAOs will gradually find market opportunities, from patronage of independent artists to mortgage securitization.
The big data aggregators won’t go away. They will participate in the decentralized data economy because it provides benefits for them as well, cutting down on fraud and reinforcing user trust, which is in increasingly scarce supply. Over time, those who provide benefits of personalization and targeting will more and more be expected to pay for it. A wide range of brokering and filtering providers will offer users a choice of analytics, some embedded in applications or devices and some providing services virtually in the cloud. Governments will focus on making data available and defining policy objectives for services that take advantage of the flow of information. Data will be treated not as property but as a renewable resource, with the competition for economic value in the applications built on top of it.
The most powerful benefit of open data built on blockchain-based decentralised control is that it will allow for new applications we can’t yet envision. If startups can take advantage of the power of data aggregation that today is limited to large incumbents, they are bound to build innovations those incumbents miss.
The surveillance economy took hold because few appreciated what was happening with their data until it was too late. And the cold reality is that few will accept significantly worse functionality or user experience in return for better privacy. That is why the blockchain-powered revolution will make its way up from infrastructural foundations of digital identity and hardware, rather than down from novel user-facing applications.
This vision is far from certain to be realized. Business decisions and government policies could make blockchain-based data decentralization more or less likely. The greatest reason for optimism is that the problem blockchain addresses – gaining trust without giving up control – is becoming ever more critical. The world runs on trust. Blockchain offers hope for recasting trust in the networked digital era.
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AITDblockchain is declaring war against anti-Globalization.

AITDblockchain is declaring war against anti-Globalization.
What consequences will Anti-Globalization bring?
World financial structure is experiencing shocks from wide range of Anti-Globalization moves. The results of the impact are diversified. Overall, the impacts of Anti-Globalization are mostly negative: Economy recession, extensive unemployment rate, global payment channel forced to shut down, economy monopoly.
To fully understand the disadvantages of Anti-Globalization and fight against it, first we need to understand how "Anti-Globalization “begin. Anti -Globalization movement enthusiasm has been skyrocketing since 2016. Unlike any other protests from previous years, the participants, size, global influences of this Anti-globalization protest are exceeding any previous Anti-Globalization protests.
The root cause for Anti-Globalization ideology skyrocketing is that many countries started looking for new economy support after economic crisis happened in 2008, overall global economy recovery experienced fatigue; The main characters are UK and US in this movement, Brexit and Global trade protectionism accelerating is the direct cause for this Anti-Globalization movement.
This vigor and vital anti-globalization movement brings tremendous influences to world economy, there are two obvious impacts.

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US Manufacturing industry back flow: Data shows that US manufacturing industry' increased value was around 30% worldwide in the 2000 market and rapidly decreased to 17% in 2014 worldwide. Therefore, in recent years, US is enforcing the method to facilitating manufacture backflow; US is requiring their corporation to stop investment in building companies outside of US, moving companies back to US as soon as possible. On one hand, US is giving corporations large portion of tax deductions for corporations which move back to US. On the other hand, US is putting pressure on corporations and declaring increasing border trade taxes if companies refuse moving back to US; In terms of real situation, many foreign companies show the tendency of moving back to US, as time goes by, this phenomenon will be more obvious. US manufacturing industry back flow will cause other countries' economy status to be unstable. It is not a friendly move for most countries which economy status stay in medium level.
Enhancing trade protection: US indicates that it will collect punitive tariff for those countries have trade surplus, comparing manufacturing back-flow phenomenon, this movement will cause unpredictable influences for trade deficit countries. If US is insisting on continuing this evil competition, it will experience endless trade revenge. Once these types endless competitions start spreading across the nation, it will not only disrupt the order of international trade, but also have influences on global economy development.
Fully armed and resist recession
In many years, Anti-Globalization has undefined impact on world economy, many countries’ manufacturing industries and employment rate have suffered certain level of influences; Many countries’ economy development were restricted under monopolistic operation; Until 2009, Bitcoin father Satoshi Nakamoto distributed the First digital currency-Bitcoin, after that, digital currency was brought into public. As Bit-coin value starts climbing, Bitcoin decentralization and consistent distribution amount traits are bringing hopes to financial practitioners.
In recent years, economy crisis and anti-globalization are continuing constantly, financial field starts experiencing digital assets initiatively or passively just because digital currency is able to use blockchain technology as it's layer structure, achieving open source finance. At the same time, Bit-coin decentralization trait is entrusting high flow value and financial expansion spaces to Bit-coin.
As blockchain industry is growing at extreme speed, the concept of decentralization has becoming well-known vocabulary compare to two to three years ago. People rarely ask "what is blockchain" now; As blockchain technology is developing and promoting, assets digitalization and finance globalization are becoming one of the important tools to fight against anti-globalization.

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Currently, Global central banks are starting exploring and developing digital assets, hoping to build a broad future through digital asset system for national economy development; Britain, Japan, Sweden multinational government are promoting Central Banks Digital Currency research development process.
Under strong upcoming anti-globalization movement, technical power seems to be extremely important, we can use the best block chain technology to build a decentralized financial system which links the whole world , allowing assets digitalization working on chain, achieving global finance online incorporation in order to fight against the negative impacts that brings by anti-globalization; From trade to social networking, from payment to loan, decentralized finance platform can almost satisfied bright future vision such as to resist economy recession, to create financial future etc.
In multiple decentralized financial platform projects, AITD Blockchain technique and global financial layout are performing at its best level; Base on the understanding of blockchain, AITD Blockchain will provide convenient and efficient deposit, loan, payment, settlement, transfer, electric invoices, digital credit, account management, currency exchanges, P2P finance, investment money management, financial information according public chain infrastructure facilities and also through assistance of modern digitalized communication, blockchain, mobile communication and internet of things techniques so on, which are a series of whole seamless direction , convenient, safe, high speed decentralized financial services.
AITD Blockchain will transfer traditional banks services completely to block chain community , which is to build a brand new decentralized banking systems; The main services are operating completely online for decentralized banks, which are covering the globe without considering time and spaces constraint; Meanwhile, decentralized banking system has powerful and safe platforms, ensuring procedures can be completed online, easy processes, convenient services, fast, efficiency, reliable, allowing 7*24 services available. Decentralized banks are customer oriented, achieving public sharing,transparent,open,global interrelated.
Global finance, Connect the world
Teams are indicating that the original purpose is circulating around world for AITD Blockchain, it allows digital assets linking value, integrating blockchain application into daily life is our ultimate graceful goal;AITD Blockchain team and consultant are mainly coming from Singapore, Europe and America, Australia and Hongkong(China) etc. who have rich working experiences and deep understanding in technique development, blockchain digital assets and financial fields.
AITD Blockchain will be designed to be a completely open blockchain platform, any developers can start DAPP development based on AITD public chain; Therefore, AITD Blockchain will not interrupt developers and DAPP directly, platform employees can communicate with developers instantly, to provide long-term operation and healthier DAPP ecosystem establishment advice. AITD Blockchain is going to achieve around 10 thousand DApps ecosystem bearing capacity goal, realizing real globalized financial ecosystem.

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Public chain is going to adopt STTC consensus algorithm , perfecting incentive mechanism, fully encouraging nodes participation, bringing more value benefits for project participants’. AITD Blockchain is integrating banks, insurance, Trust, even social networks and financial trade diverse grounded ecosystems etc., building global decentralized financial ecosystem, achieving all data to be uploaded on chain, which is defined as valuable future, covering the globe through powerful and perfect financial ecosystem, driving finance to develop globally, providing strength for economy downturn which caused by fighting against anti-globalization.
Currently, AITD Blockchain is not only creating smart public chain, overcoming cross chain technical bottleneck; but also cooperating with multiple public chain developing team, building various field of cross chain DApp ecosystem which is covering insurance, Trust , game competition, social networking; AITD Blockchain is allowing developers mainly concentrating on business logic through DOCKER'S easy arrangement, realizing developers friendly, achieving perfect balance between data transparency and business secret.
At the same time, AITD Blockchain vast application scenarios are including insurance, Trust, communication, finance, trade game, supply chain, corporation services etc., multiple blockchain appropriate grounded application scenarios; In the near future, blockchain technology will achieve broad grounded application in government affairs, media, medical health, internet of things, supply chain, entertainment various industries, creating infinite applied value for soceity,AITD is going to generate new complete ecosystem and powerful business value as blockchain technique is extending globally; Team is believing that AITD Blockchain ecosystem will bring new round era opportunity to merchants from different fields, individual, bank industry, and all other industries.
Besides that, AITD Blockchain can also provide fair, justice, compliant, reliable, free flowing value platform to global qualified blockchain digital assets project. Providing fair, efficient, open, technical environment for global digital economy in order to slow down economic predicament under anti-globalization trend; AITD Blockchain is following the idea of " Connect the world, crypto enlightening the future, the ultimate goal is to achieve Universal deposit, Universal exchanges, Universal transfer for global financial assets.
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How To End The Cryptocurrency Exchange "Wild West" Without Crippling Innovation


In case you haven't noticed the consultation paper, staff notice, and report on Quadriga, regulators are now clamping down on Canadian cryptocurrency exchanges. The OSC and other regulatory bodies are still interested in industry feedback. They have not put forward any official regulation yet. Below are some ideas/insights and a proposed framework.



Many of you have limited time to read the full proposal, so here are the highlights:

Offline Multi-Signature

Effective standards to prevent both internal and external theft. Exchange operators are trained and certified, and have a legal responsibility to users.

Regular Transparent Audits

Provides visibility to Canadians that their funds are fully backed on the exchange, while protecting privacy and sensitive platform information.

Insurance Requirements

Establishment of basic insurance standards/strategy, to expand over time. Removing risk to exchange users of any hot wallet theft.


Background and Justifications


Cold Storage Custody/Management
After reviewing close to 100 cases, all thefts tend to break down into more or less the same set of problems:
• Funds stored online or in a smart contract,
• Access controlled by one person or one system,
• 51% attacks (rare),
• Funds sent to the wrong address (also rare), or
• Some combination of the above.
For the first two cases, practical solutions exist and are widely implemented on exchanges already. Offline multi-signature solutions are already industry standard. No cases studied found an external theft or exit scam involving an offline multi-signature wallet implementation. Security can be further improved through minimum numbers of signatories, background checks, providing autonomy and legal protections to each signatory, establishing best practices, and a training/certification program.
The last two transaction risks occur more rarely, and have never resulted in a loss affecting the actual users of the exchange. In all cases to date where operators made the mistake, they've been fully covered by the exchange platforms.
• 51% attacks generally only occur on blockchains with less security. The most prominent cases have been Bitcoin Gold and Ethereum Classic. The simple solution is to enforce deposit limits and block delays such that a 51% attack is not cost-effective.
• The risk of transactions to incorrect addresses can be eliminated by a simple test transaction policy on large transactions. By sending a small amount of funds prior to any large withdrawals/transfers as a standard practice, the accuracy of the wallet address can be validated.
The proposal covers all loss cases and goes beyond, while avoiding significant additional costs, risks, and limitations which may be associated with other frameworks like SOC II.

On The Subject of Third Party Custodians
Many Canadian platforms are currently experimenting with third party custody. From the standpoint of the exchange operator, they can liberate themselves from some responsibility of custody, passing that off to someone else. For regulators, it puts crypto in similar categorization to oil, gold, and other commodities, with some common standards. Platform users would likely feel greater confidence if the custodian was a brand they recognized. If the custodian was knowledgeable and had a decent team that employed multi-sig, they could keep assets safe from internal theft. With the right protections in place, this could be a great solution for many exchanges, particularly those that lack the relevant experience or human resources for their own custody systems.
However, this system is vulnerable to anyone able to impersonate the exchange operators. You may have a situation where different employees who don't know each other that well are interacting between different companies (both the custodian and all their customers which presumably isn't just one exchange). A case study of what can go wrong in this type of environment might be Bitpay, where the CEO was tricked out of 5000 bitcoins over 3 separate payments by a series of emails sent legitimately from a breached computer of another company CEO. It's also still vulnerable to the platform being compromised, as in the really large $70M Bitfinex hack, where the third party Bitgo held one key in a multi-sig wallet. The hacker simply authorized the withdrawal using the same credentials as Bitfinex (requesting Bitgo to sign multiple withdrawal transactions). This succeeded even with the use of multi-sig and two heavily security-focused companies, due to the lack of human oversight (basically, hot wallet). Of course, you can learn from these cases and improve the security, but so can hackers improve their deception and at the end of the day, both of these would have been stopped by the much simpler solution of a qualified team who knew each other and employed multi-sig with properly protected keys. It's pretty hard to beat a human being who knows the business and the typical customer behaviour (or even knows their customers personally) at spotting fraud, and the proposed multi-sig means any hacker has to get through the scrutiny of 3 (or more) separate people, all of whom would have proper training including historical case studies.
There are strong arguments both for and against using use of third party custodians. The proposal sets mandatory minimum custody standards would apply regardless if the cold wallet signatories are exchange operators, independent custodians, or a mix of both.

On The Subject Of Insurance
ShakePay has taken the first steps into this new realm (congratulations). There is no question that crypto users could be better protected by the right insurance policies, and it certainly feels better to transact with insured platforms. The steps required to obtain insurance generally place attention in valuable security areas, and in this case included a review from CipherTrace. One of the key solutions in traditional finance comes from insurance from entities such as the CDIC.
However, historically, there wasn't found any actual insurance payout to any cryptocurrency exchange, and there are notable cases where insurance has not paid. With Bitpay, for example, the insurance agent refused because the issue happened to the third party CEO's computer instead of anything to do with Bitpay itself. With the Youbit exchange in South Korea, their insurance claim was denied, and the exchange ultimately ended up instead going bankrupt with all user's funds lost. To quote Matt Johnson in the original Lloyd's article: “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
ShakePay's insurance was only reported to cover their cold storage, and “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held”. Physical theft has never, in the history of cryptocurrency exchange cases reviewed, been reported as the cause of loss. From the limited information of the article, ShakePay made it clear their funds are in the hands of a single US custodian, and at least part of their security strategy is to "decline[] to confirm the custodian’s name on the record". While this prevents scrutiny of the custodian, it's pretty silly to speculate that a reasonably competent hacking group couldn't determine who the custodian is. A far more common infiltration strategy historically would be social engineering, which has succeeded repeatedly. A hacker could trick their way into ShakePay's systems and request a fraudulent withdrawal, impersonate ShakePay and request the custodian to move funds, or socially engineer their way into the custodian to initiate the withdrawal of multiple accounts (a payout much larger than ShakePay) exploiting the standard procedures (for example, fraudulently initiating or override the wallet addresses of a real transfer). In each case, nothing was physically stolen and the loss is therefore not covered by insurance.
In order for any insurance to be effective, clear policies have to be established about what needs to be covered. Anything short of that gives Canadians false confidence that they are protected when they aren't in any meaningful way. At this time, the third party insurance market does not appear to provide adequate options or coverage, and effort is necessary to standardize custody standards, which is a likely first step in ultimately setting up an insurance framework.
A better solution compared to third party insurance providers might be for Canadian exchange operators to create their own collective insurance fund, or a specific federal organization similar to the CDIC. Such an organization would have a greater interest or obligation in paying out actual cases, and that would be it's purpose rather than maximizing it's own profit. This would be similar to the SAFU which Binance has launched, except it would cover multiple exchanges. There is little question whether the SAFU would pay out given a breach of Binance, and a similar argument could be made for a insurance fund managed by a collective of exchange operators or a government organization. While a third party insurance provider has the strong market incentive to provide the absolute minimum coverage and no market incentive to payout, an entity managed by exchange operators would have incentive to protect the reputation of exchange operators/the industry, and the government should have the interest of protecting Canadians.

On The Subject of Fractional Reserve
There is a long history of fractional reserve failures, from the first banks in ancient times, through the great depression (where hundreds of fractional reserve banks failed), right through to the 2008 banking collapse referenced in the first bitcoin block. The fractional reserve system allows banks to multiply the money supply far beyond the actual cash (or other assets) in existence, backed only by a system of debt obligations of others. Safely supporting a fractional reserve system is a topic of far greater complexity than can be addressed by a simple policy, and when it comes to cryptocurrency, there is presently no entity reasonably able to bail anyone out in the event of failure. Therefore, this framework is addressed around entities that aim to maintain 100% backing of funds.
There may be some firms that desire but have failed to maintain 100% backing. In this case, there are multiple solutions, including outside investment, merging with other exchanges, or enforcing a gradual restoration plan. All of these solutions are typically far better than shutting down the exchange, and there are multiple cases where they've been used successfully in the past.

Proof of Reserves/Transparency/Accountability
Canadians need to have visibility into the backing on an ongoing basis.
The best solution for crypto-assets is a Proof of Reserve. Such ideas go back all the way to 2013, before even Mt. Gox. However, no Canadian exchange has yet implemented such a system, and only a few international exchanges (CoinFloor in the UK being an example) have. Many firms like Kraken, BitBuy, and now ShakePay use the Proof of Reserve term to refer to lesser proofs which do not actually cryptographically prove the full backing of all user assets on the blockchain. In order for a Proof of Reserve to be effective, it must actually be a complete proof, and it needs to be understood by the public that is expected to use it. Many firms have expressed reservations about the level of transparency required in a complete Proof of Reserve (for example Kraken here). While a complete Proof of Reserves should be encouraged, and there are some solutions in the works (ie TxQuick), this is unlikely to be suitable universally for all exchange operators and users.
Given the limitations, and that firms also manage fiat assets, a more traditional audit process makes more sense. Some Canadian exchanges (CoinSquare, CoinBerry) have already subjected themselves to annual audits. However, these results are not presently shared publicly, and there is no guarantee over the process including all user assets or the integrity and independence of the auditor. The auditor has been typically not known, and in some cases, the identity of the auditor is protected by a NDA. Only in one case (BitBuy) was an actual report generated and publicly shared. There has been no attempt made to validate that user accounts provided during these audits have been complete or accurate. A fraudulent fractional exchange, or one which had suffered a breach they were unwilling to publicly accept (see CoinBene), could easily maintain a second set of books for auditors or simply exclude key accounts to pass an individual audit.
The proposed solution would see a reporting standard which includes at a minimum - percentage of backing for each asset relative to account balances and the nature of how those assets are stored, with ownership proven by the auditor. The auditor would also publicly provide a "hash list", which they independently generate from the accounts provided by the exchange. Every exchange user can then check their information against this public "hash list". A hash is a one-way form of encryption, which fully protects the private information, yet allows anyone who knows that information already to validate that it was included. Less experienced users can take advantage of public tools to calculate the hash from their information (provided by the exchange), and thus have certainty that the auditor received their full balance information. Easy instructions can be provided.
Auditors should be impartial, their identities and process public, and they should be rotated so that the same auditor is never used twice in a row. Balancing the cost of auditing against the needs for regular updates, a 6 month cycle likely makes the most sense.

Hot Wallet Management
The best solution for hot wallets is not to use them. CoinBerry reportedly uses multi-sig on all withdrawals, and Bitmex is an international example known for their structure devoid of hot wallets.
However, many platforms and customers desire fast withdrawal processes, and human validation has a cost of time and delay in this process.
A model of self-insurance or separate funds for hot wallets may be used in these cases. Under this model, a platform still has 100% of their client balance in cold storage and holds additional funds in hot wallets for quick withdrawal. Thus, the risk of those hot wallets is 100% on exchange operators and not affecting the exchange users. Since most platforms typically only have 1%-5% in hot wallets at any given time, it shouldn't be unreasonable to build/maintain these additional reserves over time using exchange fees or additional investment. Larger withdrawals would still be handled at regular intervals from the cold storage.
Hot wallet risks have historically posed a large risk and there is no established standard to guarantee secure hot wallets. When the government of South Korea dispatched security inspections to multiple exchanges, the results were still that 3 of them got hacked after the inspections. If standards develop such that an organization in the market is willing to insure the hot wallets, this could provide an acceptable alternative. Another option may be for multiple exchange operators to pool funds aside for a hot wallet insurance fund. Comprehensive coverage standards must be established and maintained for all hot wallet balances to make sure Canadians are adequately protected.

Current Draft Proposal

(1) Proper multi-signature cold wallet storage.
(a) Each private key is the personal and legal responsibility of one person - the “signatory”. Signatories have special rights and responsibilities to protect user assets. Signatories are trained and certified through a course covering (1) past hacking and fraud cases, (2) proper and secure key generation, and (3) proper safekeeping of private keys. All private keys must be generated and stored 100% offline by the signatory. If even one private keys is ever breached or suspected to be breached, the wallet must be regenerated and all funds relocated to a new wallet.
(b) All signatories must be separate background-checked individuals free of past criminal conviction. Canadians should have a right to know who holds their funds. All signing of transactions must take place with all signatories on Canadian soil or on the soil of a country with a solid legal system which agrees to uphold and support these rules (from an established white-list of countries which expands over time).
(c) 3-5 independent signatures are required for any withdrawal. There must be 1-3 spare signatories, and a maximum of 7 total signatories. The following are all valid combinations: 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.
(d) A security audit should be conducted to validate the cold wallet is set up correctly and provide any additional pertinent information. The primary purpose is to ensure that all signatories are acting independently and using best practices for private key storage. A report summarizing all steps taken and who did the audit will be made public. Canadians must be able to validate the right measures are in place to protect their funds.
(e) There is a simple approval process if signatories wish to visit any country outside Canada, with a potential whitelist of exempt countries. At most 2 signatories can be outside of aligned jurisdiction at any given time. All exchanges would be required to keep a compliant cold wallet for Canadian funds and have a Canadian office if they wish to serve Canadian customers.
(2) Regular and transparent solvency audits.
(a) An audit must be conducted at founding, after 3 months of operation, and at least once every 6 months to compare customer balances against all stored cryptocurrency and fiat balances. The auditor must be known, independent, and never the same twice in a row.
(b) An audit report will be published featuring the steps conducted in a readable format. This should be made available to all Canadians on the exchange website and on a government website. The report must include what percentage of each customer asset is backed on the exchange, and how those funds are stored.
(c) The auditor will independently produce a hash of each customer's identifying information and balance as they perform the audit. This will be made publicly available on the exchange and government website, along with simplified instructions that each customer can use to verify that their balance was included in the audit process.
(d) The audit needs to include a proof of ownership for any cryptocurrency wallets included. A satoshi test (spending a small amount) or partially signed transaction both qualify.
(e) Any platform without 100% reserves should be assessed on a regular basis by a government or industry watchdog. This entity should work to prevent any further drop, support any private investor to come in, or facilitate a merger so that 100% backing can be obtained as soon as possible.
(3) Protections for hot wallets and transactions.
(a) A standardized list of approved coins and procedures will be established to constitute valid cold storage wallets. Where a multi-sig process is not natively available, efforts will be undertaken to establish a suitable and stable smart contract standard. This list will be expanded and improved over time. Coins and procedures not on the list are considered hot wallets.
(b) Hot wallets can be backed by additional funds in cold storage or an acceptable third-party insurance provider with a comprehensive coverage policy.
(c) Exchanges are required to cover the full balance of all user funds as denominated in the same currency, or double the balance as denominated in bitcoin or CAD using an established trading rate. If the balance is ever insufficient due to market movements, the firm must rectify this within 24 hours by moving assets to cold storage or increasing insurance coverage.
(d) Any large transactions (above a set threshold) from cold storage to any new wallet addresses (not previously transacted with) must be tested with a smaller transaction first. Deposits of cryptocurrency must be limited to prevent economic 51% attacks. Any issues are to be covered by the exchange.
(e) Exchange platforms must provide suitable authentication for users, including making available approved forms of two-factor authentication. SMS-based authentication is not to be supported. Withdrawals must be blocked for 48 hours in the event of any account password change. Disputes on the negligence of exchanges should be governed by case law.

Steps Forward

Continued review of existing OSC feedback is still underway. More feedback and opinions on the framework and ideas as presented here are extremely valuable. The above is a draft and not finalized.
The process of further developing and bringing a suitable framework to protect Canadians will require the support of exchange operators, legal experts, and many others in the community. The costs of not doing such are tremendous. A large and convoluted framework, one based on flawed ideas or implementation, or one which fails to properly safeguard Canadians is not just extremely expensive and risky for all Canadians, severely limiting to the credibility and reputation of the industry, but an existential risk to many exchanges.
The responsibility falls to all of us to provide our insight and make our opinions heard on this critical matter. Please take the time to give your thoughts.
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

Was Epstein behind an anonymous team that created Satoshi Nakamoto?

"The behavior of termites, together with ants and bees, is a precursor to trust because they have an extraordinary ability to form relationships and sophisticated social structures based on mutual altruism even though individually they are fundamentally dumb. Money itself is a derivative of trust. If we can figure out how termites come together, then we may be able to better understand the underlying principles of market behavior -- and make big money."
—Jeffrey Epstein, Letter to Martin Nowak (evolutionary game theory scientist), 2002. https://nymag.com/nymetro/news/people/n_7912/index.html
——————————————————— “I have this idea of a future with virtual peer to peer banking. A kind of decentralized and secured system. Gone would be the times that governments and banks can track and interfere with our money transfers. Or even interfere with the total amount of money on earth. My envisioned sytem would have a fixed total amount of money. But each money unit (say virtual coin) is divisable indefinitely. So a kind of deflation would replace inflation. The total value of the money in the world would be a fixed number. It poses no problem for liquidity, because the currency can be divided anytime. However maybe people will not spend their money much, because it's value will increase often. Other problems raise in the areas of security, malicious use, and how to come towards such system from current systems? These are just ideas, I like to hear comments or about net resources on this subject.”
—X, UK finance forum, 2002. https://archive.ph/T7ZBD
——————————————————— “My studies are not complete as I am working on the intersection between evolutionary dynamics, social statistical mechanics, game theory, computational biology and synthetic biology in an attempt to discover the mathematical underpinnings of competition verses cooperation. Included in this is an attempt to formularize the efficiencies of social prosthetic systems. First attempts have been to analogize it to heat and energy transfers across variable resistance nodal networks. I'm further attempting to find a derivation of “power” (Why does everybody want it?) in an ecological social system that would include variables for reputation, trust or awe and the inherent strategically diverse tactics of deception.”
—Jeffrey Epstein, application to secure Visiting Fellowship position at Harvard. 2006. https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/6880926/HarvardEpsteinReport.pdf
——————————————————— “A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Commerce on the Internet has come to rely almost exclusively on financial institutions serving as trusted third parties to process electronic payments. While the system works well enough for most transactions, it still suffers from the inherent weaknesses of the trust based model. Completely non-reversible transactions are not really possible, since financial institutions cannot avoid mediating disputes. The cost of mediation increases transaction costs, limiting the minimum practical transaction size and cutting off the possibility for small casual transactions, and there is a broader cost in the loss of ability to make non-reversible payments for non- reversible services. With the possibility of reversal, the need for trust spreads. Merchants must be wary of their customers, hassling them for more information than they would otherwise need. A certain percentage of fraud is accepted as unavoidable. These costs and payment uncertainties can be avoided in person by using physical currency, but no mechanism exists to make payments over a communications channel without a trusted party.”
—Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin Whitepaper, 2008. https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
—————————other relevant links: 2017: Epstein publicly endorsed Bitcoin as a store of value, publically funded many bitcoin “maximalist” projects HODLr since when?
2013: Links and instructions on accessing Cheese Pizza embedded on the bitcoin blockchain on blk00052 Ultimate deadman’s switch?
2013: Death of Dave Kleinman, PALM BEACH COUNTY POLICE Computer Forensics Expert and reputed encrypter of Satoshi’s 1 million Bitcoin Investigating said deadman’s switch or Epstein’s encrypted CP/blackmail confiscated by Palm Beach County police?
2003-2008: Paul Calder LeRoux “Solotsi”, #1 Bitcoin programmer candidate sets up dozens of shell companies for money laundering, drug trafficking, weapons trafficking, mining/logging enterprises, paying off assassinations. He is the founder of E4M/TrueCrypt—only encryption unbreakable by NSA according to Snowden. He is also proported to be the bastard grandson of a US senator. He lobbied Mugabe with the help of Ari Ben-Menashe of Israeli intelligence once. He came under satoshi speculation after being mentioned in a footnote of redacted Wright vs Kleinman Estate case, coincidentally being litigated by Virginia Guiffry’s law firm.
August 2019: Computer-Generated Deep Fake AI Satoshi Nakamoto? No further confirmation of this guy has appeared, either as a real person or as further proof he is Satoshi. Seems to be hiding behind mysterious shell company.
*my post got removed from bitcoin for being off-topic and deleted from Epstein probably for mentioning pizzagate, can it find a home here?
Edit: added Jeffrey’s Visiting Fellowship statement from the Harvard Report
submitted by yunibyte to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Bizarre: Coronavirus and the Number 33

This is the updated list as of March 6, 2020.

Got this from here http://itnt.news/1608
submitted by tommymbargo to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Premium Residential Proxies | Proxy Services | ResidentialProxy.online

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Proxy Services

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A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
submitted by Mundane-Parsnip to UsResidentialProxies [link] [comments]

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry

Benefits of Blockchain Technology in the Banking Industry
Link to original article: https://block.co/benefits-of-blockchain-technology-in-the-banking-industry/
The rapidly growing interest around blockchain is creating an increased amount of use cases across multiple industries, and a high demand for adoption by many governments. Banking, financial services, and insurance (BFSI) industry is predicted to be drastically transformed by this disruptive technology. According to Allied Market Research 2019, the blockchain value in the BFSI market reached $277.1 million in 2018 and is projected to reach $22.46 billion by 2026. Blockchain technology has the potential to solve the pain points of the current banking systems and operations including security, transparency, trust, privacy, programmability, and performance.
What is Blockchain?
Blockchain is the technology behind the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, that was proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, as a response to the failing financial system during the crisis. It is often associated and confused with Bitcoin, but the scope of the technology is much wider. It is also important to differentiate between the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and blockchain, as the terms often used interchangeably. All blockchains are DLT, but not all DLTs are blockchains. DLT is simply a decentralized database managed on a peer-to-peer basis.
“Blockchain is a type of DLT, a subcategory of a more broad definition, much like how the word ‘car’ falls under the umbrella term ‘vehicles’ and ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ falls under ‘geniuses’.”
In essence, blockchain is a continuous sequential chain of records (‘blocks’) that are chronologically linked together with the aid of cryptography, to ensure immutability. These records are immutable, as any change to the information recorded in a particular block is stored in a new block. Moreover, the use of modern encryption algorithms enables the security of all the records from copying or editing by other users of the system. Blockchain can be programmed to record not only financial transactions as cryptocurrency but almost anything of value (Deloitte Insights, 2019).

https://preview.redd.it/k76j8u5401751.png?width=940&format=png&auto=webp&s=e7f6573a230c816a112ae4bf561f3501c353ad32
How Blockchain Can Improve Banking Industry?
The modern banking system is not perfect and commercial banks have not changed a lot to their servicing structure since the 1970s (Haycock & Richmond, 2015). Running a bank still requires large numbers of the workforce, reliance on quite outdated systems, bloated structures with high probabilities of human error, and manual work. There are several aspects, which could be improved by the application of blockchain technology in banking operations:
1) Security Enhancement
In the UK the overall value of the financial fraud losses (e.g. payment cards, remote banking, cheques) equaled £844.8 million in 2018. The situation is even worse in the US — $170 billion average yearly losses in the financial sector. According to KPMG’s Global Banking Fraud Survey 2019 the total volume, number, and value of the fraudulent activities are drastically increasing every year.
The nature of banking operations dictates the need for centralized systems, which proved to be vulnerable and subject to cyber and hack attacks. Now, the blockchain is immutable as it operates on the principles of decentralization and transparency, and all the network participants get an identical copy of the distributed ledger of transactions. Thus, if applied in banking, blockchain can increase the validity and security of the financial transactions, eliminate the need for third-party authentication, and solve the issue of a single point of failure and hacks.
Moreover, since each transaction on the blockchain has its unique fingerprint (hash) it can be easily traced and verified. Such functionality makes blockchain a great tool to combat money laundering and reduce fraudulent or illegal transactions (Guo & Liang, 2016).
2) Improving Financial Transactions Efficiency
As we mentioned previously, the utilization of obsolete mechanisms and operational systems slows down the performance of banking institutions and provides ground for human error, delays, and system failures. All these inefficiencies could be solved by applying blockchain technology. Take for example the time-consuming bilateral exchange. The process of data reconciliation needed for it could be simplified, as on the blockchain, it is inherently part of a transaction (IBM, 2016).
Blockchain and its decentralized nature eliminate intermediaries in banking operations, which significantly cuts transaction costs and boosts efficiency (Cocco et al., 2017). Blockchain does not require intermediaries, enables cross-border transfers and micro-payments, while drastically decreasing operational costs. Such transactions in the traditional banking environment are expensive (from 1% of the amount), and constitute a huge expense on a global scale. In cryptocurrency networks, transfers may range from a few minutes down to milliseconds, and the transaction fees are decided by the market forces, meaning users have the option to set their transaction fees (Deloitte, 2017).
3) Workflow Simplification
Blockchain can simplify the current complex workflow in banking institutions. As any operation can be traced, the ability to automate processes significantly reduces costs and the need for manual work. Moreover, it is impossible to make retroactive changes on the blockchain. This guarantees data immutability and excludes the human factor, thus the probability of error, data tampering, or even leakage. Using blockchain in banking operations will digitize and automate tons of manual work, greatly boost the productivity of the financial institutions and eliminate the probability of mistakes, delays, and errors.
4) Enhanced KYC & AML
Some financial institutions find it difficult to deal with problems related to policies such as Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC). Numerous organizations are not able to solve these problems, due to the rapidly escalating costs. The adoption of the blockchain technology will enable the creation of a system where all clients’ information may be stored safely, making the independent verification an easy process or even automated securely. In this way, both AML and KYC processes will become simpler and easier, as all involved organizations will share the same system and the information will be updated in real-time, perhaps through the use of Digital Identities. In addition to this, blockchain technology will assist the organizations to minimize their administrative costs and reduce the workload.

https://preview.redd.it/200e0ap701751.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=6caaf26c53786c1341b7905ca33dd340f8929059
5) Smart Contracts
Smart contracts are an innovative development of blockchain technology which enables for time and resources saving, as they do not require a third-party interaction. Traditional contracts do not differ a lot from smart contracts, however, their key benefit is that obligations are automatically enforced and cannot be avoided by anyone.
When smart contracts are integrated with blockchain technology, we enjoy benefits such as security, automation, immutability, and transparency. The integration of smart contracts in the financial sector will provide opportunities for transparent auditing and real-time remittances. Traditional contracts are paper-based and require financial institutions to invest money in paperwork and maintain records. These records can be easily manipulated as they are on paper. Smart contracts offer bank tools for bookkeeping based on blockchain. Smart contracts have already been applied to the financial industry to gain greater automation.
6) Decentralized Finance
Another application of blockchain is Decentralized Finance, also known as DeFi. This application is at an early stage but its disruptiveness enables millions of people across the world to have access to financial services. DeFi refers to decentralized applications, financial smart contracts, digital assets as well as protocols popular as DApps, which are built on public blockchains such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The aim of DeFi is the creation of a decentralized financial system that will not depend on the traditional banking system.
Decentralized Finance offers numerous benefits to the users as it eliminates middlemen, enables everyone who does not has access to financial services to enter the global economy as it is a permission-less technology, and enables innovation with the combination of DeFi products. Besides, the use of decentralized finance increases the symmetry of information and democratizes financial services in this sense. The evolution of DeFi over the years means that most people around the world are only limited by their imagination when considering how to gain benefits from the financial ecosystem. However, there are still many complexities that need addressing to further expand the full extent of the possibilities of DeFi.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
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Premium Residential Proxies | Proxy Services | ResidentialProxy.online

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Proxy Services

https://preview.redd.it/q431hhk6xi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=14b61756c829cc37d93758bd3c8a3402944e7e60
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
submitted by Mundane-Parsnip to ResidentialIPProxy [link] [comments]

How to dive deep into political theory and philosophy: The Bread List

This is a curated collection of (largely) contemporary thinkers, books and video content aimed as a reference for questions like -
"What should I read next?", "Who should I follow?" or "What are the best resources for [certain political topic]?"
The core list comes from Noam Chomsky, and the books and people he's cited or praised. But the list has significantly expanded since then. Feel free to comment about any good books or channels you think should be on this list.
BreadTube discord here: https://discord.gg/ynn9rHE
Journalists
Start off with:
Adam H Johnson - Propaganda Model, Media Critique at FAIR
Nathan J Robinson - Journalist, Current Affairs
Glenn Greenwald- Journalist, Privacy, US imperialism. The Intercept
Also Great
Owen Jones- UK Journalist
Naomi Klein- Journalist, neoliberalism, globalization.
George Monbiot- Journalist, environmentalist.
Amy Goodman- Journalist Democracy Now
Alex Press - Journalist and Founder, Jacobin
Alexander Cockburn - Journalist
Chris Hedges- Journalist.
P Sainath- Journalist, India specialist
Whistleblowing:
Daniel Ellsberg- Vietnam, Released Pentagon Papers.
Edward Snowden
Chelsea Manning
Julian Assange
US History and Foreign Policy
Start off with:
Noam Chomsky - Everything
Howard Zinn- Historian
Laura Poitras - Documentary maker
Also Great
Eqbal Ahmad, - US imperialism
Michelle Alexander, US prison system
William Blum- Former State Dept. Agent, Historian, US imperialism
Jean Bricmont- “The Belgian Chomsky” – US imperialism, geopolitics,
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz - US History
Thomas Ferguson- US elections specialist.
Ian Haney Lopez- Racism, US politics.
Deepa Kumar- US imperialism, Islamophobia.
Andrew Bacevich - U.S. foreign policy, historian
Economics
Start off with:
Thomas Piketty - inequality
Ha-Joon Chang - institutional economist, specialising in development economics:
Joseph Stiglitz - Former World Bank Chief Economist
Amartya Sen- Third world development and Inequality, Nobel Prize Winner
Yanis Varoufakis
Richard Wolff- Marxism
Dean Baker
Also Great
Michael Albert
John Bellamy Foster
Richard Wilkinson- inequality
William Krehm - Labour
Stephanie Kelton - Modern Monetary Theory
Historians
Start off with:
Thomas Frank - historian, American politics
Howard Zinn- "People's" Historian
Raul Hilberg - The Leading Authority on the Holocaust
Phillip Mirowski - History of economics
Eric Hobsbawm - historian, Marxist
Also Great
Gar Aleprovitz, - world war 2, co-operatives.
Alex Carey - Laid the foundation for Manufacturing Consent
Nancy Maclean - US South, Labor, Race
Mark Curtis
Mike Davis- Globalization, Historian.
Gerald Horne- Historian, black liberation.
Gabriel Kolko- Historian. World War 2.
Morris Berman - historian, American social critic
Israel/Palestine
Start off with:
Norman Finkelstein- Israel specialist.
Avi Shlaim - Israel
Also Great
Amira Hass- Journalist, Israel specialist.
Illan Pappe- Israel specialist
James Petras- Israel and Latin America specialist.
Greg Philo- Media criticism, Israel.
Media Criticism
Start off with:
Edward Herman- Media criticism.
Robert McChesney- media criticism.
Edward Said- sociology, Islamophobia, Israel, media criticism
Also Great
Ben Bagdikian, - media criticism.
Keane Bhatt- Media Criticism, Latin America.
Oliver Boyd-Barrett- Media Criticism
Sut Jhally- sociology, film-maker
James Curran- Media Criticism
Alan MacLeod - Media Criticism, Venezuela
Anarchism/Socialism/Political Theory
Start off with:
David Graeber- historian, anarchism, Occupy Wall Street, anthropology.
Joel Bakan, - writer of “The Corporation”, seminal book on corporations.
Cornel West- sociology
Tariq Ali, “The British Chomsky”- everything from globalization to history to politics.
Murray Bookchin - Anarchism
Also Great
Angela Davis- Feminism, Marxism, black liberation.
Peter Gelderloos - anarchism
Uri Gordon - anarchism, Israel/Palestine
Harry Cleaver - Marxism, economics
Michel Bauwens - P2P, political economy
James C. Scott - anarchism, anthropology
Michael Heinrich - Marxism, political science
Specialists
Stephen Cohen- Russia specialist.
Bruce Cummings- Korea Specialist.
Aviva Chomsky – Immigration, Latin America.
Eduardo Galeano- Poet, Author, Latin American specialist.
Fawaz Gerges - Middle East specialist.
Andrej Grubacic- Yugoslavia specialist.
Flynt and Hillary Leverett- Iran specialists.
William I. Robinson- globalization, neoliberalism, Latin America specialist
Lars Schoultz- Latin America specialist
Sanho Tree- drugs, Colombia specialist
Nick Turse - Africa
Mark Weisbrot- economics, Latin America
Kevin Young- media criticism, Latin America
Raj Patel- Food
Vijay Prashad- globalization, third world development
Thomas Szasz- Criticism of psychiatry
Alfie Kohn- Education.
Daniel Kovalik - Human rights
Paulo Freire- Education.
Henry Giroux- Education
Greg Grandin - Historian, Latin America
Dave Zirin- sports
Gabor Maté- Education, drugs, psychiatry.
Kate Bronfenbrenner - Labour and Unions
Loic Wacquant - sociology, neoliberalism
Bernard Harcourt - surveillance, penal law
Eric Toussaint - political science, debt
The best arguments for major mainstream political positions:
Fascism and Neo-Conservatism
On Dictatorship and The Concept of The Political Carl Schmitt
Note:
Some have argued that neoconservativism has been influenced by Schmitt Most notably the legal opinions offered by Alberto Gonzales, John Yoo et al. by invoking the unitary executive theory to justify highly controversial policies in the war on terror—such as introducing unlawful combatant status which purportedly would eliminate protection by the Geneva Conventions torture, NSA electronic surveillance program—mimic his writings.Professor David Luban said in 2011 that "[a] Lexis search reveals five law review references to Schmitt between 1980 and 1990; 114 between 1990 and 2000; and 420 since 2000, with almost twice as many in the last five years as the previous five"
Realpolitik
World Order, by Henry Kissinger
Liberalism/Social Democracy
A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls
Right-Wing Libertarianism
Anarchy, State, Utopia by Robert Nozick
Technocracy
Zero to One, by Peter Thiel
Marxism-Leninism
Left-Wing Communism, and Infantile Disorder by Vladimir Lenin
Recommended books:
Israel/Palestine and the Middle East:
Start off with:
The Iron Wall by Avi Shlaim
★ Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom by Norman Finkelstein
Also Great
★ Fateful Triangle by Noam Chomsky
Israel/Palestine: How to End the War of 1948 by Tanya Reinhart
The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities by Simha Flapan
Between the Lines: Israel, the Palestinians, and the U.S. War on Terror by Tikva Honig-Parnass
The Holocaust Industry: Norman Finkelstein
Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security and Foreign Policy by Zeev Maoz
Gaza: An Inquest Into Its Martyrdom by Norman Finkelstein
The New Intifada: Resisting Israel’s Apartheid by Roane Carey, Alison Weir, and others
The Battle for Justice in Palestine by Ali Abunimah
American Foreign Policy:
Start off with:
★ ★ ★ Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky
Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II by William Blum
Also Great:
Defeat: Why America and Britain Lost Iraq by Jonathon Steele
A Different Kind of War: The Un Sanctions Regime in Iraq by Hans. C. Von Sponeck
Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror by Jason Burke
How America Gets Away with Murder: Illegal Wars, Collateral Damage and Crimes Against Humanity by Michael Mandel
The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Civilians in America's Wars by John Turnam
Talking to the Enemy: Faith, Brotherhood, and the (Un)Making of Terrorists by Scott Atran
The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade by Alfred W. McCoy
Ideal Illusions: How the U.S. Government Co-opted Human Rights by James Peck
War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination by Howard Bruce Franklin
Next Time They’ll Come to Count the Dead: War and Survival in South Sudan by Nick Turse
Tomorrow's Battlefield : U.S. Proxy Wars and Secret Ops in Africa by Nick Turse
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II by John Dower
Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, and the Illusion of Safety by Eric Schlosser
The Hungry World: America's Cold War Battle Against Poverty in Asia by Nick Cullather
Voices From the Other Side: An Oral History of Terrorism Against Cuba by Keith Bolender
The Doomsday Machine: Confessions of a Nuclear War Planner by Daniel Ellsberg
Tinderbox: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Roots of Terrorism by Stephen Zunes
One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War by Michael Dobbs
Kill Chain: Drones and The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn
First Do No Harm: Humanitarian Intervention and the Destruction of Yugoslavia by David Gibbs
The Management of Savagery by Max Blumenthal
Media and Propaganda:
Start off with:
Manufacturing Consent by Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky
Propaganda by Edward Bernays
The Record of the Paper: How the New York Times Misreports US Foreign Policy by Richard A. Falk
Also Great:
The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda by Edward Herman
The Politics of Genocide by Edward Herman
Taking the Risk Out of Democracy: Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty by Alex Carey
American History and Culture:
Start off with:
★ A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
Also Great:
Political Repression in Modern America: FROM 1870 TO 1976 by Robert Justin Goldstein
No is Not Enough: Resisting Trump's Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein
The Industrial Worker, 1840-1860: The Reaction of American Industrial Society to the Advance of the Industrial Revolution by Norman Ware
Voices of a People's History of the United States by Anthony Arnove and Howard Zinn
Violent Politics: A History of Insurgency, Terrorism, and Guerrilla War, from the American Revolution to Iraq by William R. Polk
★ With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald
Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild
The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward Baptist
The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander
Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II by Douglas A. Blackmon
Inferno: The World at War, 1939-1945 by Max Hastings
The Politics of War: Allied Diplomacy and the World Crisis of 1943-1945 by Gabriel Kolko Labor History:
The Fall of the House of Labor by David Montgomery
Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945-60 by Elizabeth A. Fones-Wolf
The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 by Charles Grier Sellers
Sociopathic Society: A People’s Sociology of the United States by Charles Derber
On the Rojava Experiment:
Revolution in Rojava
Struggles for Autonomy in Kurdistan
A Small Key Can Open a Large Door
Rojava: An Alternative to Imperialism, Nationalism, and Islamism in the Middle East
Coming Down the Mountains
To Dare Imagining: Rojava Revolution
★ Ocalan’s Prison Writings
Anarchism, Socialism, Philosophy, and Science:
Start off with:
Government In The Future(Talk) by Noam Chomsky
Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell
On Anarchism by Mikhail Bakunin
The Limits of State Action by Wilhelm von Humboldt
Also Great
Progress Without People: In Defense of Luddism by David F. Noble
Granny Made Me an Anarchist: General Franco, The Angry Brigade and Me by Stuart Christie
Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science by Alan Sokal
Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture by Alan Sokal
A Theory of Power by Jeff Vail
Workers' Councils by Anton Pannekoek
The State: Its Origin and Function by William Paul
On Anarchism by Noam Chomsky
The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution 1936-39 by Sam Dolgoff
Anarchism by Daniel Guerin
The Ancestors Tale by Richard Dawkins
Demon Haunted World by Carl Sagan
Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science WIll Transform Neuroscience by Randy Gallistel and Adam Philip King
Vision: A Computational Investigation Into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information by David Marr
Economics:
Start off with:
★ ★ Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang
★ Making Globalization Work by Joseph Stiglitz
Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty
Adam Smith and His Legacy for Modern Capitalism by Patricia H. Werhane
Also Great:
Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism by Richard Wolff
Das Kapital by Karl Marx
Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith
Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America by Martin Gilens
America Beyond Capitalism by Gar Alperovitz
The ABCs of Political Economy: A Modern Approach by Robert Hahnel
★ ★ Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems by Thomas Ferguson
The Conservative Nanny State: How the Wealthy Use the Government to Stay Rich and Get Richer by Dean Baker
Rigged: How Globalization and the Rules of the Modern Economy Were Structured to Make the Rich Richer by Dean Baker
Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age by Larry M. Bartels
Understanding Capitalism: Critical Analysis From Karl Marx to Amartya Sen by Douglas Down
Whose Crisis, Whose Future?: Towards a Greener, Fairer, Richer World by Susan George
Business as Usual: The Economic Crisis and the Failure of Capitalism by Paul Mattock Jr.
Greening the Global Economy by Robert Pollin
Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy
Political Economy and Laissez Faire by Rajani Kannepalli Kanth
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi
Miscellaneous:
★ Discipline and Punish, by Michel Foucault
Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari
Controlling the Dangerous Classes by Randall G. Shelden
Pedagogy of the Opressed by Paulo Freire
The Verso Book of Dissent: From Spartacus to the Shoe-Thrower of Baghdad by Andrew Hsiao
Don't Mourn, Balkanize!: Essays After Yugoslavia by Andrej Grubačić
★ Field Notes on Democracy: Listening to Grasshoppers by Arundhati Roy
Voices from the Plain of Jars: Life under an Air War by Fred Branfman
We by Yevgeny Zamyatin
In Praise of Barbarians by Mike Davis
Damming the Flood by Peter Hallward
Hope and Folly: The United States and UNESCO, 1945-1985 by Edward Herman and Herbert Schiller
Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village by William Hinton
The Egyptians: A Radical Story by Jack Shenker
Welcome to the Revolution: Universalizing Resistance for Social Justice and Democracy in Perilous Times by Charles Derber
Sociopathic Society: A People’s Sociology of the United States by Charles Derber
The Black Jacobins by C.L.R. James
Dark Money by Jane Meyers
King Leopold's Ghost by Adam Hochschild
Recommended YouTubers/Creators/Channels(with a linked video to get you started):
Political
Contrapoints | America: Still Racist
★ Philosophy Tube | The Philosophy of Antifa
Existential Comics
★ ★ Chomsky’s Philosophy | Bakunin's Predictions
HBomber Guy | Soy Boys: A Measured Response
Shaun | How Privatisation Fails: Railways
Badmouse Productions | Argument ad Venezuelum
Three Arrows | Who is actually at fault for the refugee crisis?
Gravesend Films (with Norman Finkelstein) | The Idea Of Utopia
The Intercept | Greenwald and Risen debate Russiagate
Non Political
Lindsay Ellis - Film Criticism | The Ideology of the First Order
The Great War - History | The Run For The Baku Oil Fields
History Civilis - History | The Constitution Of The Spartans
Numberphile - Mathematics | Perplexing Paperclips
Computerphile - Technology | The Bitcoin Power Problem
Vihart - Mathematics | Hexaflexagons
3Blue1Brown - Mathematics | How Cryptocurrencies Work
PBS SpaceTime - Astronomy, Physics | The Blackhole Information Paradox
Will Schoder - Video Essays | The Problem with Irony and Postmodernism
Assorted Documentaries to get you started:
Manufacturing Consent - The seminal work on how the population is controlled in democratic societies
★ ★ Citizenfour - Edward Snowden, Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras in a Hong Kong Room.
★ ★ Risk - A deep look at Wikileaks - from the inside the embassy.
The Murder of Fred Hampton - How the FBI brazenly assassinated an American citizen without any warrant or due process
Weiner - An incredible look at how political campaigns function from the inside.
The Corporation - What are corporations?
The Shock Doctrine - Lectures by Naomi Klein, news-reel footage and analysis to explain the connection between politics and economics.
Hypernormalization - Explains not only why chaotic events happen - but also why we, and politicians, cannot understand them.
Inside Job - A look at the cause for the financial crisis
Podcasts
Start off with:
★ ★ ★ Citations Needed
Also Great:
Intercepted
Current Affairs Podcast
Chapo Trap House
Moderate Rebels
Economic Update
Protect Yourself:
PrivacyToolsIO,
Electronic Frontier Foundation
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A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
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There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
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One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
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· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
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https://preview.redd.it/pifpkx8bxi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=b0a85a362ab399f37168e3fb9f7de5f9cd691d09
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
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https://preview.redd.it/ykczdpihxi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=08d7000a50a3528f8644d159f4f29c18a51a616f
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
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Proxy Services

https://preview.redd.it/al6w06d4wi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=6714042aebd9ded4fac0a5576e8171a658942620
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
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Proxy Services

https://preview.redd.it/kkwx0aw9xi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=081a65c3ba835d4a79151888c4539fa02b74820b
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
submitted by Mundane-Parsnip to ResidentialProxyUSA [link] [comments]

Premium Residential Proxies | Proxy Services | ResidentialProxy.online

Premium Residential Proxies | Proxy Services | ResidentialProxy.online
Proxy Services

https://preview.redd.it/2nf8jmz7xi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=c21d9c5f086950fa0f96e8f3cfd4d7de79869d17
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
submitted by Mundane-Parsnip to ResidentialIPVPN [link] [comments]

Premium Residential Proxies | Proxy Services | ResidentialProxy.online

Premium Residential Proxies | Proxy Services | ResidentialProxy.online
Proxy Services

https://preview.redd.it/3x9wznpcxi451.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=885f5adc8d2fd6ba1c0ee1e6210edbf3b2ab1a02
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by our company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. Our company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.
Our company offers two types of residential proxy services:
· Rotating IPs - which we offer for each http requested; this is, we give our customers new IP addresses for every connection request (the IP changes automatically as they go to different websites). There are other types of rotating IPs that change in a specific time interval set up by the customer; we do not offer this service, but companies like Luminati do.
· Static (Fixed) IPs – which remain fixed for an indefinitely period of time because these IPs belong to real people: we buy their bandwidth and those IPs are the ones we sell. If you purchase a static IP from a person and they turn off their computer, this IP becomes inaccessible (you won’t be able to connect to it) and you will have to wait until they turn it on again.
Without a doubt, proxy servers are a getaway between your system and the internet. Start using our residential proxies today!
Our Website: ResidentialProxy
submitted by Mundane-Parsnip to RotatingProxyTrial [link] [comments]

Residentialproxy.online a service that offer real residential proxy worldwide | 3$ per GB.

Residentialproxy.online a service that offer real residential proxy worldwide | 3$ per GB.
A proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between the connections of a client and a destination server. While being the client, instead of connecting directly to a server that can fulfill a requested resource (file, web page, etc.), the proxy receives your requests to access different pages and is in charge of transmitting them to the web server potentially masking their true origin.
You can use a high speed proxy server for multiple purposes: security and performance improvement, access to restricted sites, gaming, protection from malware present on the internet and communication anonymity, providing a high level of privacy. Proxy servers were devised to add structure and encapsulation) to distributed systems since they hide your IP and also block cookies and scripts hosted on websites.
There are two types of proxies: Datacenter Proxies and Residential Proxies, both used to hide your real IP address when browsing online.
Being the most common proxy servers, Datacenter Proxies are not affiliated with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and they come from a secondary corporation, providing you with completely private IP authentication and anonymity. Their use for brand protection works great as they are fast and cheap. Conversely, Residential Proxies are intermediary servers that use IP addresses provided by an ISP, and are connected to real residential addresses; this is, each residential proxy address has a physical location.

https://preview.redd.it/049z7pxmrxz41.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=6c3ed1869ba7abd06c9b2d4e4069a76bf030d0be
The residential proxy service offered by ResidentialProxy operated by the company EPSILON TECHNOLOGY LTD, stands out for selling residential proxies mainly from USA, Canada, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, among others. We charge for the amount of GB consumed: the cost of each GB is 3$ but we offer a discount for over 10GB consumed; you can have an additional GB for 1.75$. To buy more GB, you just need to contact us via mail or telegram and we will handle you all the information for your purchase. the company currently accepts PayPal and cryptocurrency, more specifically bitcoin and ethereum.

https://preview.redd.it/uv88027irxz41.png?width=1587&format=png&auto=webp&s=9e0e792fc9105bb0076b855c770359d32954d6a1
One of the advantages of our dedicated residential proxies is that you can go undercover when registering on websites like Netflix and Gmail: your real IP will be hidden so that you can have access to them from any part of the world, blocking censorships applied by some countries like China and its Great Firewall, where services like Google and Amazon are censored. If you use a residential proxy, you can bypass this government block and use those services.

https://preview.redd.it/1oca6a7jrxz41.png?width=1587&format=png&auto=webp&s=f9d81a62f76b9bfd138bbb828a39839f483746f1
submitted by Mundane-Parsnip to ResidentialproxyServi [link] [comments]

UK Government set to regulate cryptocurrencies - Emma Vardy reports The Three Major Governments That Hold Millions In Bitcoin Government Suppressing Bitcoin! Why you need to take profits now. Bitcoin Solves This: UK Government Seizes £150 Million From How To Choose A Legal Structure For Your UK Company - YouTube

Blockchain is known by most as the technology underpinning the Bitcoin digital currency. It is a data structure which enables an organisation to create a digital ledger of transactions and share ... The post Bitcoin Ranked Higher than South Korea’s National Currency in New Study appeared first on Bitcoin UK. Bitcoin Ranked Higher than South Korea’s National Currency in New Study We all know that people can use cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin – and they sometimes do – for illicit transactions. The UK government is seizing funds in dormant bank accounts worth approximately $185 million to fund its coronavirus relief efforts. So far, 30 banks have been voluntarily transferring money from dormant accounts to the government, including HSBC, Barclays, Clydesdale, Credit Agricole, Danske, Santander, Lloyds, and Bank of Scotland. UK Embraces Blockchain Technology. The information about that was revealed in the Commission’s 52 nd annual report that covers a period between April the 1 st and March the 31 st.With blockchain technology they will be creating an effective legal framework for smart contracts. The UK government has shown its intention to regulate bitcoin and other digital currencies, drawing them into the realms of financial regulation applied to banks and other financial services. But ...

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UK Government set to regulate cryptocurrencies - Emma Vardy reports

Get our free Bitcoin course here - https://chrisdunn.com/free-bitcoin-course This Bitcoin basics video series will explain Bitcoin for beginners. You'll lear... ©BBC 2017 - COPYRIGHT REMAINS WITH THE ORIGINAL OWNER AND IS USED FOR EDUCATIONAL & REFERENCE USE. The British Government is set to regulate cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Emma Vardy takes a look. Leading people to address the very real concern of can Governments ban Bitcoin or Can Governments stop Bitcoin and cryptocurrency. Category Science & Technology; Show more Show less. Jeff is interviewed by Gordon T Long of The Financial Repression Authority, topics include: getting outside the banking system with Bitcoin, rumours of Bitcoin’s demise are greatly exaggerated ... https://bitbargain.co.uk - Buy bitcoins with ease from trusted sellers on BitBargain, a peer-to-peer marketplace in the United Kingdom. Most of the time you will get your bitcoins in under 8 ...

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